A Guide to Astromicroscopy

Part III: Astromicroscopy Research Project

by Samuel D. Bissette

Copyright 1994

What follows is a report on the ASTROMICROSCOPY RESEARCH PROJECT carried out during June and July 1994.  The objective of the project was  to find out what could be seen,  learned, and photographed from sixty-seven 50mm color slides taken of the night sky that constitute the Northern Hemisphere using the procedures outlined in the May 22, 1992 paper. By the completion of this project, the author had viewed under the microscope every astronomical object captured on film sensitive enough to record faint stars, nebulae, and galaxies.

The text and photo groups are divided into two parts. During the long working time experimenting with the process, it was noted that certain stars, configurations, and celestial objects were unusual and deserved study. As these were found, they were recorded on a log with the description of each object. Thirty-eight color photos and thirty-three items of comment came from this source and constitute the first part of the report, Part A.  Part B consists of thirty-nine photos and thirty-six items of comment produced from a complete sixty-seven slide systematic microscopic examination.  Except for several  overlapping items, the items in this group are in addition to those in Part A.

By way of explanation, the color slide copies are photocopy machine reproductions of page-size original Ilfordchrome contact prints of the original slides with their hand legends.  This renders a very faithful reproduction of the original slides.

The circled number on each slide corresponds to the text item  for either Part A or B of the report as the case may be.

The seventy-seven photos in the report give a thorough cross section as to the type of objects seen by astromicroscopy.

Location and Identification of Unusual Objects,
Configurations, Comments, Observations, and Techniques,
Relating to 50mm Field Slides of the Northern Hemisphere

Begun June 7, 1994 By Samuel D. Bissette

Procedure: Each item will be numbered beginning with 1 and the date. For each item the following will be noted in text form: its location by approximate celestial coordinates, constellation reference and common names  of celestial objects and places, Megastar  map made or not made, observation notes, "identified" or "not identified" with adequate description of what the object is, any miscellaneous notes. Comments, observations and techniques will be recorded as they appear appropriate in the process of reviewing the original photo data.

The original document dated May 22, 1992  and the final report dated February 17, 1994, which describe in detail an unconventional method of astronomical observing called astromicroscopy and astrophotomicrography, are available on the electronic networks of CompuServe, Internet, Genie, Fidonet and Stargate BBS of the Texas Astronomical Society.  They were published as well in the May 1994 issue of the REFLECTOR, the newsletter of the Astronomical League of the U.S., which can also be downloaded from CompuServe from the Astronomy Library.

Abbreviations:  R66(8) film roll  number 66 and color slide number 8; RA - right ascension and D - declination;  NSO - non-stellar object;  NGC - New General Catalogue; and IC - Index Catalogue.  Other abbreviations are common to astronomy. A number followed by a capital X indicates a magnification in diameters by the microscope of the number.

Part A

Northern Hemisphere, material previously noted and photographed  from the origination of the observing method in 1992 to date.
1. June 8, 1994  On  R66(10) 50mm of Serpens Caput-Libra discovered a multicolored elliptical object in a four star group adjacent to Serpens constellation star Delta at RA 16h13m, D-4d10' located on Megastar chart in file.  I cannot identify the object from Megastar or sky atlas.  It is shaped like a galaxy and the coloration also is galaxy-like but its brightness is 8th magnitude which is too bright for an unidentified galaxy. The nearest adjoining 50mm slide does not reach the area so the photographic image cannot be verified.  A photomicrograph was made  at 200X, R16(18), which is in the file.  This is an intriguing object.  There is a double star close but shows also on the slide so this does not appear to be a multiple star.  Conclusion: identity unknown. UNIDENTIFIED
2.  June 8, 1994  On  R66(14) 50mm of constellation Lyra, I noted a bright elliptical object near the double-double star in Lyra near Vega.  It is located approximately RA 18h50m, D+38. No identification available from Megastar either NSO or stellar.  It is brighter than the  double-double star nearby.   My guess would be from coloration and shape that it is a yellow double star.  It is a striking and strong object.  No Megastar chart printed.  Microscope photo made at 200X R-16(8) in the file. Object not found on R66(16), another slide containing the same area.  UNIDENTIFIED
3. June 11, 1994  On Jan. 15, 1994 discovered a multicolored bar-shaped object on 50mm slide R62(13) that was unusual.  It was identified as a cluster of galaxies NGC  3790,  3801, 2, 3, 6, 7  and MCG 3-30-35  which  together form  a  properly-orientated   bar.  Photographed at 200X R17(20).  Megastar chart made and in file. Galaxy magnitudes from 12 to 15.  IDENTIFIED
4. June 11, 1994  R59(13) Cassiopeia 50mm examined for identification of three objects very near Cass. Beta  50X photo made R10(5).  Refer to it in file.  The bright long elliptical mass pointed at Beta is, in my opinion, an optical flare common to all very bright stars. The smaller adjacent blue mass brighter and with tinges of color appears to be VDB, a bright nebula.  The greenish blurred mass about three times farther to the left from Beta appears to be  IC 10, a 11.8 mag. galaxy.  Because of inexperience with the  observing method, these two identifications have just been made and I am comfortable with both.  Chart is in the file.   IDENTIFIED
5. June 11, 1994  Faint green bar-like object noted near the California Nebula  at RA 4h10m, D+34, on field slide R61(9).  500X photo R10(23) in file.  Difference in star locations on Megastar complicated identification.  Positive identification not possible.  Green color indicates a galaxy, and several in area.  Brightness of object a problem with galaxy identification.  A double variable star is just about where this object is located.  This variable star has AG beside it but no margin explanation on the chart as to what AG means.  I cannot identify the object.  UNIDENTIFIED
6. June 11, 1994 A few months ago, an examination of field slide R66(8) revealed a mottled green bar beside a red star near Corona Borealis at RA15h,35m, D+23. A 200X photo was made, R17(13),  with a location in Serpens.  It was identified as IC4553. A month later the Hubble telescope created a photo of this object, and it was determined to be a colliding galaxy and assigned the designation of ARP220.  The 200X photo which is in the file shows a lighter green-white center in the left half of the green bar that makes up the two galaxies.  No chart was printed.  IDENTIFIED
7.  June 12, 1994  This relates to Sirius and  its double star or stars.  I have four 50mm wide-field slides including Sirius R62(3), R70(1), R62(11), R62(6). Magnified slides are R14(15) a 200X and R14(11) a 50 times 50X two stage = 2500X.  Roll 70 slide taken more than two years after Roll 62.  All of these show two bright star-like objects close together and closer to Sirius than the large elliptical shape showing upper right.  They have not moved in two years.  I speculate as to what these two objects are.  Are they optical doubles?  Are they a double star system?  Are they other double stars of Sirius?  Are they planetary?  By this microscope method, it is possible to see objects closer to bright stars than with some other visual and photographic methods so these might not have been observed generally.  I would like to see identification resolved but I cannot do it. UNIDENTIFIED
8.  June 12, 1994  This observation regards Procyon in Canis Minor. Reference is made to wide-field 50mm R62(8) with microscope pictures R63(14) 50X  and R14(18) a 50 by 50X = 2500X.  This shows Procyon and its double star quite clearly.  The white elliptical object is an optical flare characteristic of very bright stars and can be disregarded.  What is unusual here is the faint white image seen against the edge of Procyon and immediately adjacent and below the conjunction with the double star appearing to overlap the surface of Procyon.  There is a possibility of another star here that could be an optical double in front of Procyon, or actually another double star.  Or just a star between us and Procyon. No other photos overlap for a comparison at present.  What do we have here? UNIDENTIFIED
9.  June 12, 1994  At RA12h,32m, D +63 on field slide 50mm,  R62(12), I found a rosy colored winged bird-like object fairly dim, magnitude guess of 12.  It was unlike anything I had yet seen in astromicroscopy.  Photo made at 500X R14(7).  Chart made on Megastar and in file. Located in a field of 1500 series AGCs.  Appears visually as a possible galactic coupling of two or more galaxies.  Does not identify on Megastar.  A guess might be that it is a galaxy cluster like an Abell Galaxy Cluster but not listed.  Actually, I cannot identify.  I note that it is a beautifully shaped  and colored object. UNIDENTIFIED
10. June 12, 1994  On 2-22-94, discovered a bright green object near Spica at RA 13h18m, D-11d 40m.  Appeared to be two objects coupled. No identification made on sky atlas and Megastar.  Wrong color for a double star which I otherwise would have thought it might be.  Field slide R66(3), 50X R18(1), 200X R18(2). UNIDENTIFIED
(No picture)
11. June 13, 1994  Reference made to R66(4), RA12h30m, D+56.  This contains the Big Dipper asterism.  A green bar was noted below Mizar-Alcor and investigated.  Below the next  handle star toward the bowl is another green bar identical to the first.  Several stars including these two  have an a blue elliptical object near the star at 11o'clock.  The other dipper stars do not have the  green bar but some have the blue one.  It appears that we have some type of optical flare in the lens system of the camera and filters.  I do not believe these objects have any astronomical significance, except for the technical value in knowing that these should be disregarded elsewhere. Megastar chart in file.  COMMENT

The next 3 slides are all #12.

12. June 13, 1994  This comment is on the subject of miniconstellations, which coins a word to describe the objects on the three slides in the file R17(18), R17(17), and R17(12). The first contains a star grouping which resembles a question mark.  The second a star grouping that has  the number seven with a half circle, and the third a grouping shaped like an hourglass.  These slides are all 50X magnification.  Just as we have had historically groups of stars named constellations which have been given individual names because of their shapes, there are also groups  that can be seen with  magnification  that can constitute similar constellations, and the above are three examples I have noticed.  COMMENT

13.  June 13, 1994  Probably the most looked-at star group in the sky is Orion, and particularly the nebula and belt stars. Because  astromicroscopy uses field slides with exposures that record a large amount of light, certain objects become visible that would otherwise not be seen as well.  Such is the case with R8(12),  a photo of the upper two belt stars which captures a configuration of a perfect S adding another miniconstellation to the three given in 12. (A personal note: I like it particularly because it is the first letter of my given name Samuel) COMMENT
14. June 13, 1994  From R59(9) 50mm field slide, a photo was taken at 500X R10(12) of a blue-white double star in Cygnus.  This beautiful star virtually linked by the resulting overexposure of the field slide is unusual to me  because of it being so faint and distant yet being able to be seen clearly notwithstanding the 500X magnification.  COMMENT
15. June 13, 1994  On R61(11), the Hyades and near Aldebaran, I noted a bright yellow center red perimeter object as bright as a fourth magnitude star at RA 4h50m, D+16.  I am unable to identify it, although it is very near what would be a dimmer triple star.  The color is unusual, the shape is a long ellipse.  UNIDENTIFIED
16.  June 14, 1994  A word about planetary nebulae.  Refer to R11(8) slide in file.  This is NGC 281 in Cassiopeia, a planetary nebula.  Due to the use of an LPR (light pollution reduction) filter when the field slides are taken, a redness is imparted to all the slides.  This enhances emission nebulae bringing into view objects that might otherwise be overlooked.  Sometimes a LPR filter is referred to as a nebula filter.  This slide at 50X gives a nice view of the nebula, its central star and the starfield surrounding.  The field slide is R61(13) 50mm. COMMENT
17. June 14, 1994  Refer to slide in file R11(16) taken from R9(16) which was photographed from a 50mm field slide of the Andromeda Galaxy area.  This is a detail of the joining of the stars in a triple star system.  The point here is the photography to do this.  First a 200x photo was taken through the microscope resulting in a slide that was then  placed in a slide duplicator and this final slide was done with two 2X teleconverters resulting in a final magnification of 800X and an unusual picture.  COMMENT
18.  June 14, 1994  This is a comment about stage photographic  magnification, a process that creates very high magnification levels.  Refer to slide R62, R12(25) in the file.  This is a slide of a double star in Perseus.  A 200X photo was taken from the 50mm field slide  creating R8(11).  This slide was then put on the stage of the microscope and another slide was taken at 200X resulting in this slide 25, the final one. The final magnification is 200X of 200X.  After submitting this to several knowledgeable people they all come up with the same answer: final magnification of 40,000X. Is it really possible to see a photo of a double star magnified 40,000 times?  I leave the matter there. COMMENT
19.  June 15, 1994  Investigation made of multicolored elliptical mass shown on slide R63, R13(1) and located  in Lepus directly below Rigel, the Orion constellation star, slide magnification 500X. This location is RA 5h05m, D-11d52m.  This object is located exactly at the location of NGC1784, an 11.8 mag. galaxy, and almost the same place as an 8th magnitude star.  Due to the multicolors, suspect a combined object composed of both the star and the galaxy, since the star does not show on the slide.  This identification is not firm but a conjecture.  It does point out that visual or photo celestial objects can be confused as to identification when they are so close together.  IDENTIFIED (?)
20. June 16, 1994  Refer to R63,13(7)  M44, The Beehive.  This slide provides an excellent opportunity to identify galaxies.  My interest in this slide was accelerated by an article in ASTRONOMY in early 1994 on the galaxies in M44.  Refer to Megastar chart  in file giving a large printout of M44 identifying a number of galaxies.  Now compare this to the slide R63,13(7).  The blue galaxies can then be identified with the chart using the star locations to guide you in the identification process. Note the double stars.  A problem exists however in that some of the star locations shown on the chart do not quite jibe with the locations on the slide, indicating a difference in some star locations on Megastar, which I have noted in other instances elsewhere.  However, this is a good identification exercise for astromicroscopy. COMMENT
21.  June 17, 1994  Capella is the sixth brightest star in our sky located in the constellation Auriga. Slide R14(2) is a 200X photo of Capella.  Note the one star image almost touching Capella and the other two very close. The Bright Star Catalogue indicates that Capella is not a double star so these must be optical doubles. The yellow-orange halo indicates to me that this bright star is very yellow in color. Among other slides of well-known bright stars  double stars occur frequently and show up sharply.  I believe some are hidden by the overexposed star image even though the ultraviolet (minus violet) filter eliminates much of the ordinary fuzzy perimeter of these stars.  OBSERVATION
22.  June 17, 1994  Noted a greenish rectangular mass at RA10h5m, D+25 in the very upper part of the question mark asterism in Leo.  After determining its approximate position, it turned out to be NGC3098, a 12th magnitude galaxy.  Confirmed also by color of mass and brightness in contrast to surrounding stars.  IDENTIFIED
23.  June 18, 1994  Refer to slide R16(9), a 50X of R66(14), showing the lower part of Lyra.  The proper orientation is to view the slide upside down.  This was selected because of the large number of sky objects that surround M57, the Ring Nebula, which is the brighter of the two pink objects slightly left of center. The two brightest stars on both sides of the Ring are Sulphat and Sheliak, the lower constellation stars of Lyra.  Notice the variety of color indicating various objects. IC1296 does not show on the slide beside the Ring, for what reason I do not know, and there are other blue objects that may be galaxies but do not show NSO designations on the Megastar chart.  Multiple star systems show up in several places. I was surprised to see so little NSO identifications, so guess these may be blue and pink stars.  All in all, this slide is filled with astronomical information.  OBSERVATION
24  June 18, 1994  This item views Antares and M4, a globular cluster, in Scorpius. Refer to slide R16(14), a 50X of R66(12), and view upside down for better orientation. Antares is the brightest star and M4 is the pink fuzzy ball to the right. Notice Antares's double star bordering the rim of Antares.  OBSERVATION
25.  June 18, 1994  This is a strange one.  A 200X slide R16(24)  of a portion of the sky near Sadr in Cygnus  shows two white irregular objects surrounded by nebulosity similar to a planetary nebula, with a shaft of light pointing to them from outside the field.  It has to be seen to comprehend the meaning of what it looks like.  The area is full of many kinds of celestial objects since it is in the Milky Way and the magnification at 200X has made it hard to relocate on the original field slide R66(16), so I cannot come up now with an exact RA and D. For the moment this apparition remains unidentified.  UNIDENTIFIED
26. June 18, 1994  My favorite open cluster has been NGC4665 known as the "HI" cluster because some of its stars form the word HI the novelty of which appeals to me. This photo on R17(3) is a much better one than one I took with my C8 at prime focus several years ago being larger, sharper, more resolution, and in color.  COMMENT
27. June 18,1994  R17(9) contains a beautiful slightly curved purplish slash-type object located at approximately RA13h40m, D+66, and shown 200X magnification. Identification was attempted but not made.  It is very near Galaxy MRK 269 but a description of this does not seem to fit the object on the slide. To look at it, it really looks like an edge-on galaxy.  UNIDENTIFIED  Megastar chart
28. June 18, 1994  Our subject is the star Algieba, the bottom left star in the question mark asterism in Leo, catalogued  as a double star.  R17(19), 200X of R62(13), carries the image of this star showing an adjacent star (its double?) which has a double-double star clearly shown touching its perimeter.  I regard this as a significant image concerning multiple star systems.  In an aside, astrophotomicrography  images of stars are clearly showing details surrounding bright stars that would be quite difficult to see or record with other observing and photo techniques. OBSERVATION AND COMMENT
29. June 19, 1994  This regards the star Arcturus and its double star status.  According to the Bright Star Catalogue in Pasachoff's book STARS AND PLANETS, Arcturus is marked as not being a double star, optical or binary, or whatever.  But according to R18(25), a 200X magnification photo from R66(5), there is a single small star very, very close to Arcturus in the two o'clock position.  This slide in file. Who's right, the catalogue or the picture?  OBSERVATION AND COMMENT
30. June 19, 1994  Double star in Equuleus. R18(21), 200X magnification slide from R67(1), shows this double identified as 5, 6 Gamma, Equuleus, my magnitude guess of 6 and 7.  OBSERVATION
31. June 19, 1994  Refer to R18(18), a 200X magnification of R67(16).  This shows a double star with a faint galaxy above and to the right.  I concern myself now with interpretation of what I am seeing with the astromicroscopy method.  A first quick look makes this double star look like two planetary nebulae.  However, the red nebulosity influencing this identification appears on farther and stronger magnification to be the illumination of the film grains by the light of the two stars, backing us up to a simple double star that would be faint since we are seeing what is on the slide magnified 200X.  The indicated galaxy comes from its faintness together with its definite green color, which I have established to my satisfaction as being a telltale sign of a galaxy for this observing method.  TECHNIQUE
32. June 19, 1994  Dumbell Nebula, Vulpecula. Refer to slide R18(12), 50X magnification of the area surrounding M27, I6853, with the nebula being the pinkish fuzzy object in the center of the slide. It is noted here because of its prominence among astronomical photo subjects. Astromicroscopy does not show detail of galaxies or nebulae but does locate them from an atlas standpoint, which is educational in astronomy for beginning astronomers or students.  Parenthetically, I believe I now have located on the 50mm field slides nearly all of the Messier catalogue. I wish now I had kept a log of these.  Perhaps one day I shall try to run the Messier marathon in a long viewing session.  OBSERVATION AND COMMENT

33.  June 19, 1994   Refer to R66(15).  Also, R18(4), 50x magnification; and R18(3), 500x magnification, noting the bright red object just below Vega and its double-double star. Location RA18h32m,D37d40m.  It could be a star, bright emission nebula or a planetary nebula based upon its color but no identification turned up with reference to sky atlas and Megastar.  It  is an object I have seen on other slides but infrequent enough to be unusual.  I cannot identify this object. UNIDENTIFIED
Technical Suggestions

The previous 33 items complete Part A.  However, in the process of recording these, certain techniques and suggestions regarding use of the method have occurred and this seems the proper place to mention them.

A.   I wish to emphasize the importance of a very carefully kept log of both the field slide work as well as the microscope work, numbering film rolls and slides, exposure data, celestial coordinates, etc.

B.  In making microscope slides from field slides, record in estimated millimeters on the log the location of the object or area being filmed through the microscope.  A slide is 24 by 36mm in size, and a location for example would be up 6mm and right 8mm.  This is necessary to relocate the object again on the field slide.  Scanning an entire slide can be a tedious job.

C.  When the field slides are processed, be sure they are numbered consecutively and inserted in the mounts in the position they were filmed.

D.  The most educational part of this process to me is seeing the  field slides enlarged by a slide projector and studying them out with a sky atlas. This "naked eye" viewing will be a revelation  as to the extent of information available to be viewed.

E.  Handle slides carefully, avoid scratches, fingerprints, and dust.  Keep in archival pages.

F.  I now believe that bracketed exposures will be of value when taking the field slides, adding to the long exposure shorter ones at two and four minutes to allow viewing of bright stars without overexposure. This will  probably reveal double stars that might otherwise be lost in the extended perimeter from overexposure.

G.  Double star systems are the principal strength of this method.

H.  Color is a valuable clue to the nature of the objects on the field slides.  Stars are mainly from white, to yellow, to orange, to red., etc.  Emission  and planetary nebulae are red.  Galaxies are green and blue.  All  the small blue dots everywhere, I believe, are galaxies, many of them too faint to be recorded on the NSO catalogues.

I.  Like any observing technique, experience is necessary and astromicroscopy is no different.

J.  It is advisable to have overlapping field slides in order to have an object appear on more than one slide for verification of details.  Also slides of the same area taken a year or two apart can reveal the movement of double stars in some cases.

K.  Keep an open and curious mind in using this method.  Try to understand what you see and use some common sense in identification and interpretation.

This ends Part A

Part B

A catalog of objects that I consider remarkable, unusual, or beautiful that were noted and photographed in a complete 50mm slide-by-slide microscopic examination of the Northern Hemisphere made in June and July 1994. (The term Northern Hemisphere is construed to mean also some overlap into the Southern Hemisphere on occasions)  These objects are in addition to those in Part A with some exceptions in which addditional information is added. The same method of recording the log  for Part A is also used for Part B.
1. August 17, 1994  R19(8) 500X of R66(10) 50mm  records an object in Libra with a bright center and equally spaced wing-like extensions on both sides.  It is shaped somewhat like a galaxy, but if it is it must be faint considering the 500X magnification. No identification possible from either Megastar or Uranometria.  UNIDENTIFIED
2. August 17, 1994 R19(10) is a 50X of R63,R13(5)(a 50X of R62(14)) resulting in a 2500X final image. This is NGC 2174,5 in Gemini, a planetary nebula which is apparently double.  IDENTIFIED
3. August 17, 1994 R19(11) is a 50X of R66(14) in Lyra. I consider this a miniconstellation in the shape of a lily flower and I am naming it "Lily". I think the total beauty of the stellar arrangement  is striking.  OBSERVATION
4. August 17, 1994  R19(12) is a 200X of R62(13).  This star group with the yellow-white double is found in Leo.  OBSERVATION
5. August 18, 1994  R19(13) is a 200X of R62(13). Shown is Algieba, in Leo, and adjacent is star 40, appearing to be Algieba's double star. In conjunction with 40 is an elliptical mass that is pink on the original 50mm slide.  I cannot identify with Megastar or Sky Atlas.  This mass may be an optical flare from Algieba.  Its presence is confirmed on 50mm R62(10) which shows it as a longer ellipse. I do not know what this object is.  By being on two slides, it is not a film flaw.  This same star was  chosen as Item 28 in Part A with the possibly erroneous conclusion that this object was a double star to the possible small double of Algieba. UNIDENTIFIED

6.  August 18, 1994  R19(17) is a 200X of 50mm R66(5).  This shows a double star with the smaller a double-double.  Located in Coma Berenecis.  OBSERVATION

7.  August 18, 1994  R19(20) is a 200X of R66(4).  This is a triple star located in the Big Dipper, an asterism of Ursa Major. OBSERVATION
8. August 18, 1994  R19(21) is a 500X of R61(9). It is a triple star near the California Nebula, with one orange and two blue stars. OBSERVATION
9.  August 18, 1994  R19(22) is a 200X of R62(10). It is a photo of the E star, the top star to the right in the question mark asterism in Leo, together with its two companions that are close but not doubles. The unusual object is adjacent to one of the two companions and is a long elliptical or bar-shaped mass with multicolors and three distinct centers of light all in a row.  It does not identify on Megastar or Sky Atlas. It may be a multiple galaxy group or an optical flare from the E star. It does not show up on R66(1) which also shows the E star.  UNIDENTIFIED

10. August 18, 1994  R20(1) and (2) are slides of 50X and 200X of R66(12) in Ophiuchus. Between the two stars on slide 2, there is a  faint wavy green bar, location  RA 16h,40m, D-18.  No identification made.  Checked brighter asteroids in motion then and the only two were elsewhere.  UNIDENTIFIED
11. August 19, 1994  R20(5) is a 200X of R66(13).  A triple star grouping in Ophiuchus.  OBSERVATION
12. August 19, 1994 R20(6) is a 500X of R66(13). A double star in Ophiuchus. OBSERVATION
13. August 19, 1994  R20(7) is a 50X of R66(13). IC 4756 an open cluster in Ophiuchus.  OBSERVATION
14.  August 19, 1994  R20(8) is a 50X of R67(7).  This is identified as NGC281 and IC 1590, a cluster and nebula,  mag. 7.4.   Reference is made to item 16 in Part A which refers to this same object. It is identified as NGC281, a planetary nebula. In reviewing this, I discovered that IC1590 is also involved and does not refer to the nebula as planetary.  However, with the single star surrounded by nebulosity, I feel the nebula is planetary in nature.  Therefore, this further comment is also included. IDENTIFIED
15. August 19, 1994  R20(10) is a 100X of R62(7). This is M44, the Beehive open star cluster.  This was logged in Part A as item 20, for its relation with galaxy identification.  It is included here for an entirely different reason. I have been searching for stellar groups at the microscopic level that could be defined as asterisms or miniconstellations, but have also been on the lookout for a combination of galaxy and stellar objects that would qualify. This does. In the center is the figure "H" with the uprights galaxies and the connecting bar is a large double star.  It makes a striking miniconstellation to me, and is so easy to locate. OBSERVATION AND COMMENT
16. August 19, 1994  R20(14) is a 50X of R67(15). This is a miniconstellation located in Eridanus called "Left Turn Only" which is plainly self-explanatory. OBSERVATION
17. August 19, 1994  See item 7 in Part A about Sirius. Part of my confusion is cleared up by realizing that Sirius is really Sirius-a and that Sirius-b is another star that is part of the constellation Canis Major and that Sirius' double star is a faint companion. It now appears obvious that the elliptical mass adjacent to Sirius is an optical flare caused by Sirius's brightness. Reference to Uranometria shows several small star combinations near Sirius but I cannot reconcile these with what I see on the picture. In the atlas, there are two stars that show against the face of Sirius that could be intended to be the two small ones shown on this slide R20(15) which is a 100X of R62(11).  Sirius and its companions is an interesting subject which I shall leave for now.  COMMENT
18. August 19, 1994  R20(16) is 100X of R62(11).  A bright nebula in Puppis near RA7h, 40m,  D-25 which I am not able to identify. UNIDENTIFIED
19. August 19, 1994  R20(17) is a 100X of R62(11). A triple star in Puppis with the smallest star blue. OBSERVATION
20. August 19, 1994 R20(18) is a 100X of R66(2)  A miniconstellation near the Coma Cluster which could be called Umbrella or Crescent. OBSERVATION

21. August 19, 1994  These two slides are adjacent and overlapping and are of Jupiter in Leo, RA10h,32m, D+11, R20(19) and (20), 50X of R66(1). Which are Jupiter's moons and which are stars?  This was photographed on 4-5-92 and a reference to Jupiter's moon positions on that date do not help.  OBSERVATION
22. August 19, 1994  This is an additional observation of Procyon which was covered in Part A, Item 8.   R20(22) is a 400X of R62(8) and is of Procyon. Clearly shown to the right is the double which is also a double but this is not resolved in the photo. What does appear, however, are two stars against the face of Procyon, a white area lower right and very faintly another white mass to the left. Both these are shown in Uranometria. OBSERVATION
23. August 19, 1994  R20(23) is a 200X of R62(8). This shows an elliptical yellow-orange object that is almost as bright as Procyon. Nothing appears on the maps that would account for this object. Its  shape would indicate a bright double star but this does not appear to be true. My guess, based on the color being the same as Procyon, that it is an optical flare caused by Procyon; however, this location being farther away than flares usually are make it a puzzle.  UNIDENTIFIED
24. August 19, 1994 R20(24) is a 200X of R62(6). This is an unusual star group composed of a yellow star flanked by doubles on either side making a triple star system.  Located in Canis Major.  OBSERVATION
25. August 19, 1994 R20(25) is a 200X of R62(6). It shows M47, an open cluster in Canis Major.  Three double stars appear in this group. OBSERVATION
26. August 19, 1994  R21(2) is a 50X of R62(5). It shows a beautiful star group in Perseus at RA3h,30m, D+48  OBSERVATION
27. August 19, 1994 R21(7) is a 50X of R61(12). This is a green oblong object located below M34, an open cluster in Perseus, exactly in the center of the slide. I identify it, not with complete certainty, as NGC1003, an 11th magnitude galaxy. Its shape could be  caused by something moving such as an asteroid or satellite that owes its bar shape to the time it moved during an eight -minute exposure.  IDENTIFIED (?)
28. August 19, 1994 R21(8) is a 200X of R61(18).  A yellow double star in Orion with a possibility that red star to left is a double star with the yellow one since magnification is 200X.  OBSERVATION
29. August 19, 1994  R21(9) is a 200X of R61(13). It  is an unusual multiple star system virtually touched by the glow of the Orion Nebula. One of the doubles is a triple and the other may have four other companions upon close observation.  OBSERVATION
30. August 19, 1994  R21(10) is a 200X of R61(13). Rigel in Orion Constellation is  shown with its double star.  The ellipse is an optical flare of Rigel.  OBSERVATION
31. August 21, 1994 R21(11) is a 50X of R61(13). This is Betelgeuse, the upper left corner star in the constellation of Orion. It is a red super giant, the largest star within 1,000 light -years of Earth.  It is also a variable and double star.  OBSERVATION
32. August 21, 1994  R21(12) is a 50X of R61(14). This object appears to be a planetary nebula with a central star; however, it is identified as a nebula and cluster NGC2174,5.  It is very close to M35. This was previously dealt with under Item 2 of this Part, but this additional view turned up on another wide-field slide which is included here.  IDENTIFIED
33. August 21, 1994 R21(13) is a 50X of R61(15). This is a green object located approximately RA6h,25m, D+5. Unable to identify. Location just west of NGC2244.  UNIDENTIFIED
34. August 21, 1994  R21(14) is a 50X of R62(2). A configuration of objects with an open cluster on each side and a faint nebula IC410 and Cluster NGC1893 in the middle.    NGC1405 is upper right, a very faint nebula.  IDENTIFIED

35. August 22, 1994  R21(15) and (16) are 200X and 50X of R69(14).  This object is shaped like a green bar and is to the left of the Mexico portion of the North American Nebula at RA21h,5m, D+44.  I cannot identify it with my atlas sources.  This is one of several like objects I have seen in reviewing the Northern Hemisphere slides, none of which I have been able to identify.  Asteroids and comets have been checked, optical flares considered (but not lightning bugs as I have had past experience and I know what they look like when photographed and this is not one!), opening a possibility that this is a man-made object.  UNIDENTIFIED
36. August 22, 1994  R21(17) is 50X of R69(8). The field slide R69(8) is a four-minute exposure  instead of the usual  eight-minute one, intended to lessen exposure on bright stars and reveal close doubles that might otherwise be obscured by the overexposed stars.  This did not give any help in this case but the principle should be clear. The Lyra double-double has distortion due to coma from the microscope as the object is very near the edge of the viewing field.  OBSERVATION AND COMMENT

This Completes Part B.  Part A and Part B combined give the final listing of all unusual objects, configurations and other celestial groups that were noted from a microscopic examination of 50mm field slides of the entire Northern Hemisphere as well as some overlap into the Southern Hemisphere up to minus declination of 10 to 15 degrees.

This is the end of the Astromicroscopy Research Report

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